Marine Protected Areas

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are areas of sea, coast or transitional waters, such as estuaries, which are designated under legislation to protect certain habitats and species (features) that exist within those areas.  It is a term used across the globe to describe "any area of intertidal or subtidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment" (Kelleher and Kenchington, 1992).

The UK Government is committed to establishing a well-managed ecologically coherent network of MPAs, each designated to meet specific conservation goals. Sites make up part of the UK’s commitments to provide long term protection for the marine environment under its Blue Belt programme. In the UK MPAs are set up to conserve biodiversity and protect the species and habitats of international or national importance.

There are several types of MPAs including Marine Conservation Zones (MCZ), Special Areas of Conservation (SAC), Special Protection Areas (SPA), Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) with marine components, Marine Nature Reserves (MNR) and No Take Zones (NTZ). As of May 2019 approximately 25% of UK waters are currently within MPAs. These include are 115 SACs with marine components, 112  SPAs with marine components, and 97 MCZs.  Within English waters there are 175 MPAs covering 40% of English inshore and offshore waters combined (91,606 km2).

Within the D&S IFCA’s District there are currently twenty-two MPAs - ten European Marine Sites (SAC, SPA) four Tranche 1 MCZ, two Tranche 2 MCZ and six Tranche 3 MCZ.

The protection, afforded under MPA designation to the features of the sites, is aimed at reducing destruction, damage or the reduction in distribution of marine species and/or habitats.  These sites and their features are assessed for their conservation status, and the Statutory Nature Conservation Bodies (SNCB), i.e. NE and JNCC, advise on the conservation objectives, and targets for the interest features of the MPA. A conservation objective is a statement describing the desired ecological/geological state of the designated feature of the MPA.  The SNCB provide advice on operations which may cause deterioration or disturbance to interest features and will provide advice on the general management approach.

To ensure protection of the designated features of an MPA, restrictions may apply on activities that are likely to cause significant effect to that feature. D&S IFCA undertakes research to ground truth the location and extent of MPA habitats, to gather information on the designated species of MPAs and to determine the likely impacts of fishing on the site features.

The evidence gathered feeds into MPA Assessments that are undertaken to determine any likely significant effect. These assessments inform the development of D&S IFCA’s management to protect features of MPAs through its Permitting Byelaws.

Outputs from these assessments include the development of  Monitoring and Control Plans that detail the on-going monitoring of fishing activity within some sites, against baseline data, and set trigger levels for potential changes in management where appropriate and necessary. 

MPA work currently being undertaken by D&S IFCA is outlined in its Annual Plan.

Page reviewed: 3rd July 2020/Links reviewed 23rd April 2021.

More Information

What is an MPA?

MPAs in D&S IFCA's District